Tyburn

Village in/near Marble Arch, existing until 1799

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Tyburn

MAP YEAR:1750180018301860190019502020Remove markers
Village · * · W1H ·
October
31
2017

Tyburn was a village of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch and the southern end of Edgware Road.


It took its name from the Tyburn Brook, a tributary of the River Westbourne. The name Tyburn, from Teo Bourne meaning ’boundary stream’, is quite widely occurring. The Tyburn consisted of two arms, one of which, crossed Oxford Street, near Stratford Place; while the other - later called the Westbourne - followed nearly the course of the present Westbourne Terrace and the Serpentine. The Westbourne had rows of elms growing on its banks which became a place of execution. The former Elms Lane in Bayswater, preserved the memory of these fatal elms, which can be regarded as the original ’Tyburn Trees.’

Tyburn Brook should not be confused with the better known River Tyburn, which is the next tributary of the River Thames to the east of the Westbourne.

The village was one of two manors of the parish of Marylebone, which was itself named after the stream, St Marylebone being a contraction of St Mary’s church by the bourne. Tyburn was recorded in the Domesday Book and stood approximately at the west end of what is now Oxford Street at the junction of two Roman roads. The predecessors of Oxford Street (called Tyburn Road in the mid 1700s) and Edgware Road were roads leading to the village, later joined by Park Lane (originally Tyburn Lane).

In the 1230s and 1240s the village of Tyburn was held by Gilbert de Sandford, the son of John de Sandford who had been the Chamberlain of Queen Eleanor. Eleanor had been the wife of King Henry II who encouraged her sons Henry and Richard to rebel against her husband, King Henry. In 1236 the city of London contracted with Sir Gilbert to draw water from Tyburn Springs, which he held, to serve as the source of the first piped water supply for the city. The water was supplied in lead pipes that ran from where Bond Street Station stands today, one-half mile east of Hyde Park, down to the hamlet of Charing (Charing Cross), along Fleet Street and over the Fleet Bridge, climbing Ludgate Hill (by gravitational pressure) to a public conduit at Cheapside. Water was supplied free to all comers.

Tyburn had significance from ancient times and was marked by a monument known as Oswulf’s Stone, which gave its name to the Ossulstone Hundred of Middlesex. The stone was covered over in 1851 when Marble Arch was moved to the area, but it was shortly afterwards unearthed and propped up against the Arch. It has not been seen since 1869.

Public executions took place at Tyburn, with the prisoners processed from Newgate Prison in the City, via St Giles in the Fields and Oxford Street. After the late 18th century, when executions were no longer carried out in public, they were carried out at Newgate Prison itself and at Horsemonger Lane Gaol in Southwark.

The first recorded execution took place - that of William Fitz Osbert, the populist leader of the poor of London - at a site next to the stream in 1196.

In 1571, the Tyburn Tree was erected at the junction of today’s Edgware Road, Bayswater Road and Oxford Street, near where Marble Arch is situated today. The "Tree" or "Triple Tree" was a novel form of gallows, consisting of a horizontal wooden triangle supported by three legs (an arrangement known as a "three-legged mare" or "three-legged stool"). Several felons could thus be hanged at once.

The Tree stood in the middle of the roadway, providing a major landmark in west London and presenting a very obvious symbol of the law to travellers.

The site of the gallows is now marked by three young oak trees that were planted in 2014 on an island in the middle of Edgware Road at its junction with Bayswater Road. Between the trees is a roundel with the inscription "The site of Tyburn Tree".

By the late 1700s, London’s sprawl had reached along Oxford Street and Tyburn village lost its identity.




Main source: Wikipedia
Further citations and sources



A view of Tyburn (1750)

A view of Tyburn (1750)
Old and New London: Volume 5. Edward Walford (1878)

NEARBY LOCATIONS OF NOTE
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Home House Home House is a Georgian town house at 20 Portman Square.
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Metropolitan Borough of Westminster The Metropolitan Borough of Westminster was a metropolitan borough in the County of London from 1900 to 1965.
Montagu House Montagu House at 22 Portman Square was a historic London house.
Odeon Marble Arch The Odeon Marble Arch (known as the Regal 1928-1945) was a cinema located opposite Marble Arch monument at the top of Park Lane, with its main entrance on Edgware Road.
Orchard Court Orchard Court is an apartment block off of Portman Square in London. Known in French as Le Verger, it was used during the Second World War as the London base of F section of the Special Operations Executive (SOE).
Somerset House, Park Lane Somerset House was an 18th-century town house on the east side of Park Lane, where it meets Oxford Street, in the Mayfair area of London. It was also known as 40 Park Lane, although a renumbering means that the site is now called 140 Park Lane.
Speakers’ Corner Speakers’ Corner is in the northeast corner of Hyde Park.
St Georges Fields St George’s Fields are a former burial ground of St George’s, Hanover Square, lying between Connaught Street and Bayswater Road.
Tyburn Tyburn was a village of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch and the southern end of Edgware Road.
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NEARBY STREETS
Albion Close, W2 Albion Close dates from around 1830.
Albion Mews, W2 Albion Mews is a cobbled cul-de-sac that is approached through an entrance under a building on Albion Street.
Albion Street, W2 Albion Street was laid out over the Pightle field in the late 1820s.
Archery Close, W2 Archery Close is a street in Paddington.
Bakers Mews, W1U Bakers Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1U postal area.
Berkeley Mews, W1H Berkeley Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Bilton Towers, W1H Bilton Towers is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Brown Street, W1H Brown Street is a road in the W1H postcode area
Brunswick Mews, W1H Brunswick Mews is a road in the W1H postcode area
Bryanston Street, W1C Bryanston Street is a road in the W1C postcode area
Bryanston Street, W1H This is a street in the W1H postcode area
Bryanston Street, W2 Bryanston Street is a road in the W2 postcode area
Burwood Place, W2 Burwood Place is a street in Paddington.
Cambridge Square, W2 Cambridge Square is a road in the W2 postcode area
Castlereagh Street, W1H Castlereagh Street is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Clenston Mews, W1H Clenston Mews is a road in the W1H postcode area
Connaught Close, W2 Connaught Close is a cul-de-sac off Connaught Street.
Connaught Place, W2 Connaught Place is a street near to Marble Arch.
Connaught Square, W2 Connaught Square was the first square of city houses to be built in the Bayswater area.
Connaught Street, W2 Connaught Street is a street in Paddington.
Culross Street, W1K Culross Street is a road in the W1K postcode area
Cumberland Mansions, W1H Cumberland Mansions is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Dunraven Street, W1K Dunraven Street is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.
Edwards Mews, W1U Edwards Mews is a road in the W1U postcode area
Fitzhardinge House, W1H Residential block
Fitzhardinge Street, W1H Fitzhardinge Street is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Frederick Close, W2 Frederick Close is a street in Paddington.
George Street, W1H George Street is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
George Street, W2 George Street is a road in the W2 postcode area
Granville Place, W1H Granville Place is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Great Cumberland Place, W1 Great Cumberland Place is one of the streets of London in the W1 postal area.
Great Cumberland Place, W1H Great Cumberland Place is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Green Street, W1K Green Street is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.
Grosvenor Square, W1A Grosvenor Square was developed by Sir Richard Grosvenor from 1721 onwards.
Hampden Gurney Street, W1H Hampden Gurney Street is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Hampshire House, W2 Residential block
Hyde Park Place, W2 Hyde Park Place is a street in Paddington.
Hyde Park Street, W2 Hyde Park Street is a street in Paddington.
Jones Street, W1K Jones Street is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.
Kendal Street, W2 Kendal Street is a street in Paddington.
Lees Place, W1K Lees Place is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.
Manchester Square, W1U Manchester Square is a small but well-preserved Georgian square in Marylebone.
Marble Arch, W1H Marble Arch is a major road junction in the West End, surrounding the monument of the same name.
Montagu Street, W1H This is a street in the W1H postcode area
New Quebec Street, W1H New Quebec Street is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Norfolk Crescent, W2 Norfolk Crescent is a street in Paddington.
North Audley Street, W1K North Audley Street is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.
North Carriage Drive, W2 North Carriage Drive is a road in the W2 postcode area
North Row, W1K North Row is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.
Nutford Place, W1H Nutford Place is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Old Quebec Street, W1 Old Quebec Street is a road in the W1 postcode area
Old Quebec Street, W1H Old Quebec Street is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Orchard Court, W1H Orchard Court is a road in the W1H postcode area
Orchard Street, W1H Orchard Street is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Orchard Street, W1K Orchard Street is a road in the W1K postcode area
Oxford Square, W2 Oxford Square is a road in the W2 postcode area
Oxford Street, W1C Oxford Street is Europe’s busiest shopping street, with around half a million daily visitors, and as of 2012 had approximately 300 shops.
Park Lane, W1C Park Lane is a road in the W1C postcode area
Park Steps, W2 Park Steps is a street in Paddington.
Park Street, W1K Park Street is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.
Park West Place, W2 Park West Place is a street in Paddington.
Park West, W2 Park West is a street in Paddington.
Porchester Place, W2 Porchester Place is a street in Paddington.
Portman Close, W1U Portman Close is a road in the W1U postcode area
Portman Mews South, W1H Portman Mews South is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Portman Square, W1H Portman Square is a square, part of the Portman Estate, located at the western end of Wigmore Street, which connects it to Cavendish Square to its east.
Portman Street, W1C Portman Street is a road in the W1C postcode area
Portman Street, W1H Portman Street is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Portsea Mews, W2 Portsea Mews is a street in Paddington.
Portsea Place, W2 Portsea Place is a street in Paddington.
Providence Court, W1K This is a street in the W1K postcode area
Quebec Mews, W1H Quebec Mews is a road in the W1H postcode area
Red Place, W1K Red Place is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.
Reeves Mews, W1K Reeves Mews is a road in the W1K postcode area
Robert Adam Street, W1U Robert Adam Street was the 1938 renamed Adams Street.
Seymour Mews, W1H Seymour Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Seymour Street, SE18 A street within the SE18 postcode
Seymour Street, W1H Seymour Street is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Seymour Street, W2 Seymour Street is a street in Paddington.
Shepards Place, W1K Shepards Place is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.
Shepherds Place, W1K Shepherds Place is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.
Spanish Place, W1U Spanish Place is one of the streets of London in the W1U postal area.
Stanhope House, W2 Residential block
Stanhope Place, W2 Stanhope Place is a street in Paddington.
Stourcliffe Street, W1H Stourcliffe Street is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
The Water Gardens, W2 The Water Gardens is a street in Paddington.
Upper Berkeley Street, W1H Upper Berkeley Street is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Upper Brook Street, W1K Upper Brook Street is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.
Upper Grosvenor Street, W1K Upper Grosvenor Street is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.
Vincent Court, W1H Vincent Court is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Water Gardens, W2 Water Gardens is a street in Paddington.
Wigmore Street, W1H Wigmore Street is one of the streets of London in the W1H postal area.
Woods Mews, W1K Woods Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1K postal area.


Marble Arch

Marble Arch station was opened on 30 July 1900 by the Central London Railway.

Like all the original stations on the CLR, Marble Arch was served by lifts to the platforms but the station was reconstructed in the early 1930s to accommodate escalators. This saw the closure of the original station building, designed by the architect Harry Bell Measures, that was situated on the corner of Quebec Street and Oxford Street, and a replacement sub-surface ticket hall opened further to the west. The new arrangements came into use on 15 August 1932. The original surface building was later demolished.

The platforms, originally lined in plain white tiles, were refitted with decorative vitreous enamel panels in 1985. The panel graphics were designed by Annabel Grey.

The station was modernised in 2010 resulting in new finishes in all areas of the station, apart from the retention of various of the decorative enamel panels at platform level.


LOCAL PHOTOS
Montagu House, Portman Square
TUM image id: 1510140427
Portman Square, W1H
TUM image id: 1510141130
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